Qitzur Shulchan Arukh – 67:9

ט: אַף- עַל-פִּי שֶׁלְּעִנְיַן כָּל הַמִּצְוֹת שֶׁבַּתּוֹרָה אֵין הַבֵּן נַעֲשֶׂה גָּדוֹל עַד שֶׁיִּהְיוּ לוֹ שְׁלֹשׁ- עֶשְׂרֵה וְהֵבִיא שְׂעָרוֹת, וְהַבַּת אֵינָהּ גְּדוֹלָה עַד שֶׁיִּהְיוּ לָהּ שְׁתֵּים עֶשְׂרֵה שָׁנָה וְהֵבִיאָה סִימָנִים, אֲבָל לְעִנְיַן נֶדֶר וּשְׁבוּעָה, יֵשׁ לָהֶם קְדִימָה שָׁנָה אֶחָת. שֶׁהַקָּטֹן בֶּן שְׁתֵּים- עֶשְׂרֵה שָׁנָה וְיוֹם אֶחָד, וְהַקְּטַנָּה בַּת אַחַת- עֶשְׂרֵה שָׁנָה וְיוֹם אֶחָד, אֲפִלּוּ לֹא הֵבִיאוּ סִימָנִים, אִם מְבִינִים לְשֵׁם מִי נָדְרוּ וְנִשְׁבְּעוּ, נִדְרָם נֶדֶר וּשְׁבוּעָתָן שְׁבוּעָה. אֲבָל פְּחוּתִים מִזְּמַן זֶה, אֲפִלּוּ מְבִינִים, אֵין דִּבְרֵיהֶם כְּלוּם. וּמִכָּל מָקוֹם גּוֹעֲרִין בָּהֶם וּמַכִּין אוֹתָן שֶׁלֹּא יַרְגִּילוּ לְשׁוֹנָם בִּנְדָרִים וּשְׁבוּעוֹת. וְאִם הוּא דָּבָר קָטָן וְקַל שֶׁאֵין בּוֹ עִנּוּי נֶפֶשׁ, גּוֹזְרִין עֲלֵיהֶם שֶׁיְקַיְמוּהוּ

Even though with respect to all [other] mitzvos of the Torah a boy doesn’t become an adult until he is 13 years old and [can] bring [two pubic] hairs, and a girl isn’t an adult until she is 12 years old and [can] bring signs [of puberty], when it comes to the subject of neder and shevu’ah they have precedence by one year.

To explain: A male child who is 12 years and one day old [i.e. on his 12th birthday onward] and a female child who is 11 years and one day old [her 11th birthday], even if they didn’t bring any signs [of puberty, because they didn’t develop yet], if they understand in Whose name they made a neder or shevu’ah, there neder is a neder, and their shevu’ah, a shevu’ah.

But younger than this age, even if they [have this] understanding, their words are nothing. In any case, we scold them and hit them so that they shouldn’t habituate their tongues in nedarim and shevu’os. And if it’s a small and easy matter that doesn’t cause personal suffering, we decree upon them that they should fulfill them.

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